Toxic Fungi of Western North America

by Thomas J. Duffy, MD


1a. Kirk PM, Ansell AE. (1992) Authors of Fungal Names. Index Fung. (suppl.):I-viii, 1-95.

1. Duffy TJ and Vergeer P. California Toxic Fungi. Monograph #1, Toxicology Committee of the Mycological Society of San Francisco, 1977.

2. Saylor, Herbert M. (1984) A. phalloides in California: This preliminary report suggests that it is a relative newcomer to the state. Mushroom Magazine Summer 1984, 40-42.

3. Trestraill JH. (1995) Mushroom Poisoning Case Registry: NAMA Report 1944 North American Mycological Association Case Registry, Ann Arbor, Michigan. (death in Oregon from Boletus pulcherrimus in 1994; husband, wife survived).

4. Peck, CH. (June, 1909) New Species of Fungi. Torr. Bot. Club Bull. 36(6):329-339.

5. Horgan, PS, J F Ammirati, and HD Thiers (1976) Occurrence of Amatoxins in Amanita ocreata. Lloydia 39:368-371.

6. Murrill, William A. (September, 1912) The Agaricaceae of the Pacific Coast II. Mycologia IV(5):230-262.

7. Wright, G. (1998) Killer mushroom actually does arrive in Los Angeles. Mushroom: The journal of wild mushrooming 11:4,#2 p35.

8. Wood, Michael. (2001) Past President, Mycological Society of San Francisco, creator and WebMaster of, and creator and WebMaster of Personal Communication.

9. Lindgren, Janet E. (1999) Toxicology Committee of Oregon Mycological Society and of North American Mycological Association (NAMA). Personal Communication.

10. Lincoff, Gary H. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Chanticleer Press, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1981.

11. Jenkins, DT. (1960) Old Tombstone Inscription Recording the Death of a Family from Mushroom Poisoning. Mycologia 52:521-522.

12. Cheny, W. Fitch (Chico, California). (1871) Cases of Mushroom Poisoning Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal. 5:119-121.

13. Forster “Mushrooms and Mushroom Poisoning” (1890) Boston Medicine and Surgery Journal 123:267-272.

13a. Aroche, R-M, Villegas M, Cifuentes J, Lorea F. 1984 Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de Amanita phalloides en México. Bol. Soc. Mex. Micol. 19:275-281.

13b. Tulloss, RE, Ovrebo CL, Halling RE. 1992 Studies on Amanita (Amanataceae) from Andean Columbia. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 66:1-46.

14. Wasson, Gordon R. (April 7, 1972) The death of Claudius or mushrooms for murderers. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 23(3):103-115.

15. Oudot, Christine. Thèse présentée à la Faculté de Pharmacie de Dijon pour l’obtention du Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Pharmacie. 14 Mars 1983.

16. Fries, Elias. "observationes mycologicea" as quoted in The Puffball: newsletter of the Willamett Valley Mushroom Society, June 1993/July 1939. From site online maintained by John Dhabolt here.

17. Atti del 1° Convegno Internazionale de Micotossicologia (at Roccella Jonica) 4-5 Diciembre 1998 published in Pagine di Micologia anno 1999 #11 of Associazione Micologica Bresadola Centro Studi Micologici, Trento. A. Toxines des champignon supérieurs et pollution. Synthèse générale des principales conaissances. Jean-Pierre Rascol. B. L'esperienza quinquennale del Laboraratorio Micologico di secondo livello del P.M.I.P. di Milano in casi di intossicazioni da funghi (1993-1997): Presidio Multi di Igiene e Prevenzione-A.S.L. Città di Milano Unità di Riferimento Regionale per la Micologia—Paola Follesa, Teresa Resegalli & Fernanda Cigada. E. Non-Protein Amino-acids as toxic principle in species of Amanita—Veronica Pelizzari and Meinhard Moser.

18. Flammer, R: Differentialdiagnose der Pilzvergiftungen (1980) p33 Gustvav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart and New York.

18a. Jenkins, DT. (1978-1985) A Study of Amanita Types. Mycotaxon. 7:23-44; 7:371-372; 10:175-180; 10:296-298; 14:237-246, 20:414-416; 20:315-317; 24:283-286; 32: 415-419.

19. Lindgren, Janet. 2003. Personal Communication re Oregon death from Amanita ocreata.

19a. O.K. Mill., Hemmes & G. Wong, Mycologia 88(1):140 (1996)

20. Boom, M. (1999) Past President, MSSF. Contributor to and co-producer of the Boletes of California with Fred Stevens. Personal communication.

21. Duffy, TJ. Personal observations of odor on 114 specimens of Amanita phalloides 1985-1999.

22. Moser, Meinhard. Keys to the Agarics and Boleti. Translated from the original German by Simon Plant and edited by Geoffrey Kibby from the 4th edition of Die Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze, published 1983 by Roger Phillips under license from Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

23. Bon, Marcel. The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-Western Europe. Hodder and Stoughton, London, Sydney, Auckland and Toronto, 1987.

23a. Gulden, Gro, Susie Dunham and John Stockman. 2001 DNA Studiies in the Galerina marginata complex. Mycologoical Research 105: 432-440, Cambridge University Press.

24. Ammirati JF, Thiers HD and P. Horgen. (1977) Amatoxin-containing Mushrooms: Amanita ocreata and A. phalloides in California. Mycologia 69:1095-1108.

25. Tulloss, Rodham E. (P.O. Box 57, Roosevelt, NJ 08555) Syllabus for a Seminar on Amanita, 4th edition, 1998. See revision in 2005 of Key to Species of Amanita Section Phalloideae from North America by Rodham E. Tulloss and Lindsay Possiel,

26. Guzmán, G. Identificación de los hongos; Comestibles, venenosos, alucinantes y destructores de la madera. Editorial Limusa, México, 2nd edition, 1979.

26a. [Death from Lepiota poisoning] Mushroom The Journal 66, winter 1999/2000.

27. Sundberg, Walter James. The family Lepiotaceae in California. Master of Arts thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, July 1967.

27a. Lamaison, Jean-Louis and Polese, Jean-Marie. 2005 The Great Encyclopedia of Mushrooms. p140. Könemann, an imprint of Tandem Verlag GmbH, Königswinter, Germany.

28. Brown, D. et al. (1985) Mushrooming in the Pacific Northwest. McIlvainea XXV (25th anniversary issue):29-35.

29. Thiers HD. (1968) Prior Head of the Department of Biological Sciences, San Francisco State University and past president of the Mycological Society of America. Personal communication to author on SFSU Conocybe filaris poisoning.

30. Meixner tests performed by MSSF (Duffy, Vergeer) and LAMS--(Greg Wright). 1986-1990 and at least twice more by MSSF in 1994 and 1995.

31. Esquivel, Adriana Montoya. (1998) Ethnomycology of Tlaxcala, Mexico.

32. Faulstich, H et al. (1974) Analysis of the toxins of amanitin containing mushrooms. A. Naturforsch. 29:86-88.

33. Wieland, T. Peptides of Poisonous Amanita Mushrooms. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986.

34. Lindell, TJ et al. Specific inhibition of nuclear RNA polymerase II by a-amanitin. Science 1970:447-449.

35. Wieland, Th. and Faulstich, H.: Amatoxin, phallotoxins, phallolysin and antamanide, the biologically active components of poisonous Amanita mushrooms. Crit. Rev. Biochem. (1978) 5:195-260.

36. Wieland and Faulstich (1991) Fifty years of amanitin. Experientia 47:1186-1193.

37. Tyler, VE. (1966) Occurrence of Amanita toxins in American collections of deadly Amanitas. J Pharm Sci 55:590-595.

38. Boerner, Udo. Reported to the Toxicology Committee of the MSSF in 1975 from the Toxicology Laboratory of San Francisco General Hospital. Also in Mycena News, the society's newsletter, but unable to find the original article.

39. Preston, JF et al. (1975) Quantitation of amanitins in Amanita verna with calf thymus RNA Polymerase B. Lloydia 38:152-161.

40. Johnson, BEC and Preston,JF. (1976) Quantitation of amanitins in Galerina autumnalis. Mycologia 68:1248-1253.

41. Meixner, A. (1979) Amatoxin-Nachweiss in Pilzen. Z. Mykol. 45(1) 137-139.

42. Dilger, W. (1949) Dipl.-Arbeit, Mainz, Germany. (thesis)

43. Kornerup A and Wanscher JH. Methuen Handbook of Colour, third edition, Eyre Methuen, London, 1978.

44. Beutler,JA and PP Vergeer. 1980. Amatoxin in American Mushrooms: Evaluation of the Meixner Test. Mycologia 72(6): 1142-1149.

45. Vergeer, Paul P (1986) The Meixner Test Evaluated. McIllvainea (v7,#2):61-66.

46. Seeger, R (1984) Zeitungspapiertest für Amanitine—falsch-positive Ergebnisse. Zeitschrift für Mykologie 50(2):353-359.

47. Becker CE, Tong TG, Boerner U. et al (1976) Diagnosis and treatment of Amanita-type mushroom poisoning—Use of thioctic acid. West J Med 125:100-109.

48. Faulstich H, Kommerel, B and Wieland TH, editors. Amanita toxins and Poisoning (International Amanita Symposium, November 1-3, 1978), (1980) Verlag Gerhard Witzstrock, Baden-Baden/Köln/New York.

48a. Bartels, O and G Topf. Amanita Phalloides Poisoning—Indication for Early Haemoperfusion? pp147-154

48b. Czygan, P. Stiehl, B. Kommerell Treatment of Acute Amanita Phalloides-Induced Hepatic Failure by Haemoperfusion 155-161

48c. Constantino D, Zuchetti M et al. Coagulation Troubles During Human Amanita Phalloides Intoxication 169-176

48d. Barrter, F Thioctic acid in amanitin poisoning

48e. Rumack, BH Amanita poisoning: An examination of clinical symptoms on clinical course of Amanita phalloides poisoning. (second latent period 12-14 hours)

48f. Langscheid C et al. In vitro elimination of [3H]methyl-dehydroxymethy-α-amanitin by four different extracorporeal detoxification methods.

48g. Jahn W et al. Phamracokinetics of (3H) Methyldehydroxy-α-amanitin in the isolated perfused rat liver. Gerhard Witzstrock, New York, 1980.

49. Spoerke, DG and Rumack BH, editors. Handbook of mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and treatment.

49a. Faulstich H—Chapter on Amanita poisoning. (pp.233-248)

49b. Spoerke, DG—Chapter on mushroom odors (pp.399-418) Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994. C. Faulstich p. 238 for reference to unpublished paper on lack of correlation between urine amanitin levels and severity of poisoning [Jankowska, I.,Ryzko, J., Faulstich, H. and Socha, J. In preparation.]

50. Rumack, Barry H. and Emanuel Salzman; editors. (1978) Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. including A. "Chemistry and mode of action of mushroom toxins" by William Scott Chilton with personal communication from DH Mitchel re muscarinic symptoms in a nursing women presumably caused by Amanita muscaria. B. "Symptomatic diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning" by Duane H. Mitchel and Barry H. Rumack.

51. Piqueras, J. (1989) Hepatotoxic Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. Mycopathologia 105:99-110.

52. Zevin S, Dempsey D, Olson K. (6/61997) Amanita phalloides Mushroom Poisoning—Northern California, January 1997. CDC MMWR Weekly. 46 (22):489-492.

53. Yamada EG, Mohle-Boetani J, Olson KR and Werner SB. (1998) Mushroom poisoning due to amatoxin. Northern California, Winter 1996-1997. West J Med 169:380-384.

54. Tayor, JA. (1971, published 1972) Mushroom toxins and toxicity, with a review of promising new methods of treatment. (Pre-print: Department of Internal Medicine, Permanente Medical Group, San Rafael, California.) [1972 in WJMed].

55. Fiume l et al. (1973) Pathogenesis of gastro-intestinal symptomatology during poisoning by Amanita phalloides. Experientia 29:1520-1521.

56. Larcan A and Lambert H eds.: Champignon toxiques: Compte rendu de la Réunion du Groupment Français des Centre Anti-Poisons, Pont-A-Mousson, 26 mai 1977 (Nº 106: Collection de Médecine Légale et de Toxicolologie Médicale). Masson, Paris 1977. For grade IV encephalopathy with hemoperfusion see A. Bartels, C and R. Seeger Traitement de L’intoxication phalloïdienne par hemoperfusion sur charbon p.93-97; for miscellaneous hemolyses see B. Girre, L. and A. Gérault Classification des intoxications par les champignons supérieurs selon les grands syndromes p. 117-127; for Amanitins see C. Larcan. L et al: L’intoxication Phalloidïenne Bilan Clinique et Thérapeutique des Six Dernières Annés p.79-92; and for active European muscarinic mushrooms see D. M. Porte et al: Recherche de Nouvelles Èspeces de Clitocybes à Activité Muscarinique p.139-143.

57. Constantino, D et al. (1978) Amanita-phalloides-Related Nephropathy. Contr Nephrol 10:84-97.

58. Kelner, MJ and Alexander, NM. (1987) Endocrine abnormalities in Amanita poisoning. J Clin Toxicol 25(1-2):21-37.

59. Ryzko, J., Jankowska I., and J. Socha. 1990 [Evaluation of selected parameters in calcium and phosphate metabolism in acute liver failure following poisoning with Amanita phalloides.] Pol. Tyg. Lek. Dec 3-10;45(49-50):990-992. Abstract of above.

60. Pond, Susan M., Olson, Kent R., Woo, Olga F. et al. (1986) Amatoxin Poisoning in Northern California, 1982-1983 West J Med August145:204-209.

61. Olson, Kent R. et al. (1982) Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning. West J Med Oct;137:282-289.

62. Brunswig D et al. (1972) Verbrauchskoagulopathie bei toxischer Le. berschädigung durch Knollenblätterpilzvergiftung. Dtsch Med Wschr 97:1342.

63. Meili, EO et al. (1970) Coagulation changes during massive hepatic necrosis due to Amanita phalloides poisoning. Helvetica Medica Acta 35:304-313.

64. Timar L and Czeizel AE. (1997) Birth weight and congenital anomalies following poisonous mushroom intoxication during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 11(6):861-866.

65. Dolfi, F and R. Gonnella. (1994) [Acute Amanita phalloides poisoning in the second pregnancy trimester]. Minerva anestesiol March 60 (3):153-154.

66. Kaufmann, M. et al. (1978) [Fetal damage due to mushroom poisoning with amanita phalloides during the first trimester of pregnancy.] Geburstshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 38(2):122-124.

67. Buttenwieser, S and Bodenheimer, W. (1924) Ueber den Uebertritt des Knollenblätterschwammgiftes in die Brustmilch. Deutsche Med Wochenschrift 50:607.

68. Floersheim, G et al. (1982) Die Klinische Knollenblätterpilzvergiftung (Amanita phalloides): prognostische Faktoren und therapeutische Massnahmen. Schwiz. Med. Wschr. 112: 1164-1177, 1982.

69. Vogel G et al. (1984) Protection by silibinin against Amanita phalloides intoxication in Beagles. Toxic. and Appl. Pharmacol. 73:355-362.

70. Vergeer, P. (1997) Personal communication to Duffy, T.

71. Neftel, K et al. (1988) Sind Cephalosporine bei der Intoxikation mit Knollenblätterpilz besser wirksam als Penicillin-G? Schweiz Med. Wochenschr. 118:49-51.

72. Amanite phalloïde: Conduite à tenir. Paracelse: Copyright©1995 Centre-Anti-Poisons CHU de Grenoble (France). Mise à jour le 01-12-1995.

73. Fauser, U and Faulstich H. (1973) Beobachtungen zur Therapie der Knollenblätterpilzverfgifgtung: Besserimg der Prognose durch Unterbrechung des enterohepatischen Kreislaufs (Choledochus drainage). Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 98:2259.

74. Frank, IC and Cummins L. (1987) “Amanita Poisoning Treated with Endoscopic Biliary Diversion. J. Emerg. Nursing 13(3):13213675.

75. Faulstich, H. (1979) New Aspects of Amanitin Poisoning. Klin Wochenschr 57:1143-52.

76. Mydlik, M. et al.: Hemoperfusion with alpha-amanitin: an in vitro study. 4th Medical Clinic, Medical School, University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice, Slovak Republic. Abstract, International Journal of Artificial Organs. 20(2):105-7, 1997.

77. Jaeger A et al. (1993) Kinetics of amatoxin in human poisoning: therapeutic implications. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 31:63-80.

78. Piqueras J, et al. (1987) Mushroom poisoning : therapeutic apheresis or forced diuresis. Transfusion, 27:116-7.

79. Torres, J Sesé et al. (1985) Intoxicación por Amanita phalloides. Diagnóstico por radioimunoanálisis y tratamiento con diuresis forzada. Med Clin (Barc) 84:660-662.

80. Constantino et al. (1980) Il trattamento di emergenza e l’intossicazione phalloidea. Nuove prospettive in rapporto alla cinetica delle amatossine nell’uomo. Recent Prog Med 6:649-685.

81. Faulstich H et al. (1996) New aspects of amanitin and phalloidin poisoning. Adv Exp Med Biol 391:309-314.

82. Benjamin Denis R. Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1995. (p.144 for mass poisoning by raw morels in Vancouver, BC 1992) (p. 220 for effect of vitamin K)

83. Sanz, P et al. (1988) Disseminated intravascular coagulation and mesenteric venous thrombosis in fatal Amanita poisoning. Hum. Toxicol. 7:199-202.

84. Blei, AT et al. 1993 Complications of intracranial pressure monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet 341:157-158.

85. Rozga, J et al. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure. Ann Surg 219(5)538-546.

86. Bektas, H, HJ Schlitt et al. (1996) [Indications for liver transplantation in severe Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning]. Chirurg Oct;67(10):996-1001. Abstract in Medline database.

87. Duffy, TJ. Liver Transplantation for Victims of Amanita Poisoning (1989) McIlvainea 9(1):4-6.

88. Teuch, C and RW Brennan. (1978) Amanita mushroom poisoning with recovery from coma: a case report. Ann Neurol 3(2):177-179.

89. Ronzoni,G., S. Vesconi et al. (1991) [Recovery after serious mushroom poisoning (grade IV encephalopathy) with intensive care support and without liver transplantation] Minerva Anestesiologica 56(6):383-387. Abstract only.

90. Chen et al. (1993) Polyclonal amanitin-specific antibodies: production and cytoprotective properties in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 46:327-329.

91. Shaw, Marilyn (January, 2000) Personal communication. (Mushroom poisonings from 1996 on referred to her directly or through the Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center.) Roughly 50 or so symptomatic poisonings per year.

92. Jenkins, DT. (1977) A taxonomic and nomenclatural study of the genus Amanita section Amanita for North America. Biblio. Mycol. 57:1-12.

93. Thiers HD and DL Largent editors. Agaricales of California, Mad River Press, Eureka, California 1982-1999.

94. Jenkins, DT. Amanita of North America. Mad River Press, Inc. Route 2, Box 151B, Eureka, California 95501, 1986.

95. Tulloss R. (6 Aug 2000) Personal communication on differences between Alaska's Amanita muscaria var. regalis and the Scandinavian taxon.

96. Catafolmo, R. and C.H. Eugster. (1970) Amanita muscaria: Present Understanding of Its Chemistry. 22(4):33-41.

97. Mitchel, DH and Smith AH. (Oct-Dec, 1976) Notes on Colorado Fungi II. Species of Armillaria (Fr.) Kummer. (Agaricales) Mycotaxon 4(2):513-533.

98. Muto, T. and Sugawara, R. 1970. 1-3 Diolein, a house fly attractant in the Mushroom Amanita muscaria. Contr. Insect Behav. Natur. Prod., Pap. Semin., 189-208, dated 1968, published 1970. Chem Abstr. 75, 115912q.

99. Bowden, K et al. (1965) Constituents of Amanita muscaria. Nature (London) 206: 1359-1360.

100. Onda et al. (1965) A flycidal constituent Amanita Pantherina (DC) Fr. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 12, 751.

101. Benjamin, Denis R. (1992) Mushroom Poisoning in Infants and Children: The Amanita pantherina/muscaria group. Clinical Toxicology 30(1):13-22.

102. Krosgaard-Larsen, P and Johnston, GAR. (1975) Inhibition of GABA uptake in rat brain slices by nipecotic acid, various isoxazoles and related compounds. J Neurochem 25:797pp.

103. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000) Program Book—the glutamate cascade: common pathways of central nervous system disease states. on-line at Use Northern Lights search engine preferably.

104. Benedict, Robert G. Mushroom Toxins Other than Amanita. Chapter 11 of Microbial toxins, edited by Kadis, SA, Ciegler, A and S Ajil, Vol. 8 (Fungal Toxins) Chapter 11, Acad. Press, New York, 1972.

105. Chilton, WS and Ott J (1976) Toxic metabolites of Amanita pantherina, A cothurnata, A muscaria and other Amanita species. Lloydia 39:150-157.

106. Waser, PG: The pharmacology of Amanita muscaria. In DH Efron, B Holmstedt and NS Kline, editors of "Ethnopharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs", U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1967 (publ. 1979) pp. 419-439.

107. Pfefferkorn W and G Kirsten. (1967) Beitrag zum Pantherina syndrom in Kindesalter—Pantherpilzvergiftung. Kinderärzliche Praxis 35:355-364.

108. Wüst G and Arnold W. (1955) Klinishcher und toxikologischer Beitrag zur Pantherpilvergiftung. Zeit. Ges. Inn. Med. 10:1170-1172.

109. Bosman CK et al. (1965) Mushroom Poisoning caused by Amanita pantherina. S Afr Med J 39:983-986.

110. Alder AE (1961) Erkennung und behandlung der pilzvergiftunger. Dtsch Med Wschr 86:1121. (death rates in Germany for muscaria and pantherina)

111. Buck RW. (1963) Toxicity of Amanita muscaria. J Am Med Assoc 185:663. (US death rates for muscaria and pantherina).

111a. Rose, David W. (2006) The Poisoning of Count Achilles de Vecchj and the Origens of American Amateur Mycology. McIlvainea 16 (1) Spring 2006. pp. 37-42.

112. Rogers, Maggie. (Summer, 1991) Toxicology Committee of Oregon Mycological Society. Oregon high school students meet Amanita pantherina. Mushroom the Journal, p16.

113. McDonald, Angus The Present Status of Soma: The effects of California Amanita muscaria on normal human volunteers Chapter 13 pp 215-223, CRC Press Inc, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1978.

114. Scotti de Carolis et al. (1969) Neuropharmacological investigations on muscimol, a psychotropic drug extracted from Amanita muscaria. Psychopharmacologia 15:185-195.

115. Page, LB. (1984) Mushroom toxins and the nervous system: some facts and speculations. McIlvainea 6(2):39-43.

116. Tulloss R and Lindgren JE (1992) Amanita smithiana—Taxonomy, Distribution and Poisonings. Mycotaxon 45(Oct, Dec):373-387.

117. Warden and Benjamin. (1998) Acute renal failure associated with suspected Amanita smithiana mushroom ingestions: a case series. Academic Emergency Medicine 6(8):86-93.

118. Pelizarri, V and Moser, M. (1944) Partial purification and characterization of a toxic component of Amanita smithiana. Mycologia 125:3-5.

119. Myler, RK , Lee, JC and J Hopper. (1964) Renal Tubular Necrosis Caused by Mushroom Poisoning. Arch Int Med 114:196-204.

120. Grzymala, S. (1957) Erfahrungen mit Dermocybe orellana (Fr.) in Polen: B. Massenvergiftung durch den Orangefuchsigen Hautkopf. A. Pilzk. 23:139-142.

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123. Høiland K and Schumaker T. (1983) Nyere erfaringer med spiss gifslørsopp og slørsoppforgiftninger. Våre Nyttevekster 77:6-17. (orellanine test #1)

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125a. Lampe, Kenneth F. and Ammirati, Joe F. (1990) Human Poisoning by Mushrooms in the Genus Cortinarius . McIlvainea 9(2): 12-25.

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127. Antowiak WZ and Gessner WP. (1975) Isolation and characteristics of toxic components of Cortinarius orellanus Fries. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. 23:729-733.

128. Antowiak WZ and Gessner WP. (1978) Structure elucididation of orellanine. 11th IUPAC Int. Symp. Chem. Nat. Prod. 2:45-47.

129. Rapior, S et al. (1988) Chemotaxonomic study of orellanine in species of Cortinarius and Dermocybe. Mycologia 80:741-747.

130. Tebbet, IR and Cady, B. (1984) Toxins of the Genus Cortinarius. Experientia 40:441-446.

131. Prast, H. et al. (1988) Toxic properties of the mushroom Cortinarius orellanus: I. Chemical characterization of the main toxin of Cortinarius orellanus (Fries) and Cortinarius speciosissimus (Kühn. and Romagn.) and acute toxicity in mice. Arch. Toxicol. 62:81-88.

132. Schumacher, T. and Høiland, K. (1983) Mushroom Poisoning Caused by Species of the Genus Cortinarius. Arch. Toxicol. 53:87-106. Orellanine bipyridine compounds.

133. Pöder R and Moser M. (1989) Eine einfache, empfindliche Methode zum makochemischen Nachweis von Orellanin. Mycologia Helvetica 3:283-290.

134. Short et al. (1980) Poisoning by Cortinarius speciosissimus. The Lancet, November 1. pp 942-944.

135. Viernstein H et al. (1980) Vergleich des giftgehaltes der lorchelarten Gyromitr gigas, Gyromitra fastigiata und Gyromitra esculenta. Ernahrung Nutrition 41:392-494.

136. McKnight, Kent H. On Two Species of False Morels (Gyromitra) in Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist 31:35-47, 1971; reprinted in McIlvainea (2)1:27-39, 1975.

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