The North American Species of Pholiota

39. Pholiota veris nom. nov.

Kuehneromyces rostratus Singer & Smith, Mycologia 38: 510. 1946.
(non Pholiota rostrata Vel. 1921).

Illustrations: Text figs. 131-132; pls. 16-17.

Pileus 2-6 cm broad, obtuse when young, soon convex to campanulate-convex, finally plane or depressed and sometimes the center perforated, rarely slightly umbonate, margin incurved at first, surface moist and hygrophanous, when young "clay-color" to "sayal-brown" (tan to dull cinnamon) slowly becoming paler and the margin often avellaneous when water-soaked, fading finally to warm-buff (yellow) to whitish, with a thin viscid to subviscid pellicle, glabrous at maturity, at first with fibrils along the margin, margin even at first, becoming translucent striatulate. Context concolorous with surface and more or less hygrophanous, gradually tapering outward, very fragile; taste mild, odor not distinctive.

Lamellae adnexed-sinuate to adnate and rounded, often with a decurrent tooth, pallid to pallid tan ("pinkish buff") when young, near clay-color to cinnamon when mature, moderately broad, (usually about 5 mm broad near stipe), close to crowded, thin, edges even.

Stipe 4-9 cm long, 4-12 mm thick, watery-pallid or subconcolorous, but paler than pileus, subequal or tapering upward from a ventricose midportion, characteristically long, fleshy, interior stuffed but soon hollow, somewhat squarrulose-squamulose on lower surface of annulus and for a short distance downward, usually glabrescent in age, silky to furfuraceous and whitish above the annulus, at the base appressed white fibrillose.

Spore deposit about "snuff-brown"; spores 5.5-7.5 x 3.7-4.8 µ, at maturity elliptic to ovate or indistinctly lentiform in face view, about the same in profile or more narrowly elliptic, wall double (?), apex truncate to obscurely truncate, wall smooth, not thick enough to measure, pale tan revived in Melzer's sol.

Basidia 20-24 x 5-6 (7) µ, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 36-66 x 3-6 µ, erratic in occurrence, absent in many sections, narrowly fusoid-ventricose with a long slender neck and acute to subacute apex, thin-walled and smooth. Cheilocystidia 38-62 X 4-9 µ, ventricose-rostrate, neck 2-3.5 µ thick, apex acute to subacute, content homogeneous, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline in KOH. Caulocystidia 30-80 x 5-8 µ, in dense clusters, cylindric-clavate, sometimes a few similar to cheilocystidia. Pileus cutis a thin gelatinous pellicle of appressed hyphae; hypodermium a dingy brown zone scarcely differentiated structurally.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On logs and debris, and especially sawdust of hardwoods such as oak and beech logs, (Smith 36675 on dung), Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, North Carolina and Tennessee, April-July.

Observations: The pleurocystidia are usually present in damaged areas, a situation not infrequently encountered in Psilocybe. This is one of the most distinctive species of the subgenus by virtue of its pale color faded, extreme fragility dried, and rather wide delicate stipe. Some of the spores in mounts of the type appear slightly compressed.

Material Examined: MARYLAND: Kauffman, 5-20-19, as "Pholiota sp." (MICH). MICHIGAN: Bartelli 2209, 2219; Harding 79; Smith 9510, 15002 (type), 15021, 21467, 25535, 28740, 321148, 32149, 36301, 36321, 36369, 36416, 36620, 36675, 38980, 41293, 51346, 66253, 66355, 66509, 66640, 71505, 71515, 71519, NORTH CAROLINA: Hesler 20411. OHIO: Walters 5-21-42, 5-20-46. TENNESSEE: Hesler 20411, 21314, 21322, 21346. WISCONSIN: Shaffer 740.