The North American Species of Pholiota

147. Pholiota subfulva (Pk.) comb. nov.

Flammula subfulva Peck, New York State Mus. Ann. Rept. 41: 68. 1888.
Gymnopilus subfulvus (Pk.) Murrill, North Amer. Flora 10: 204. 1917.

Illustrations: Text figs. 319-321.

Pileus 3-6.5 cm broad, convex, sordid tawny to rusty, marginal portion pallid or yellowish and appressed-scaly, the scales darker, viscid, fibrillose with fugacious veil-remnants on the margin. Context grayish white; odor and taste not distinctive.

Lamellae adnate, white or pallid, becoming brownish ochraceous, close, thin, medium broad.

Stipe 5-7.5 cm long, 4-8 mm thick, whitish to pale yellowish, apex pruinose, the base staining rusty in age, more or less fibrillose-scaly, solid. Veil buff or yellowish white, copious, forming an evanescent fibrillose ring.

Spores 6-7.5 x 4-4.5 µ, smooth, apical pore absent to very minute. Shape in face view elliptic to ovate, in profile obscurely bean-shaped to somewhat inequilateral, color revived in KOH pale golden tawny to ochraceous tawny, in Melzer's reagent paler ochraceous tawny to dull pale ochraceous; wall about 0.25 µ, thick.

Basidia 4-spored, 18-24 x 5-6.5 µ, narrowly clavate, yellowish in KOH and in Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia abundant 50-75 x 8-12 (15) µ, fusoid-ventricose with obtuse apex, outline of neck often flexuous to almost contorted, smooth or with some adhering gelatinous material, wall thick in ventricose portion (± 2 µ), thinning out in neck, neck filled with a plug of hyaline to ochraceous homogeneous material, some of this in some cells extruded in the form of a cap over apex of the cell, walls hyaline to yellowish in KOH. Cheilocystidia subcylindric to fusoid ventricose, 28-46 (55) x 7-12 µ, walls thickened in most, with mucilaginous adhering material in many and content mostly ochraceous in KOH. Caulocystidia present at apex of stipe, 40-60 x 10-16 µ, scattered, elliptic-pedicellate to fusoid-ventricose, walls thin to somewhat thickened. Cheilocystidia-like cells also present in the caulohymenium.

Gill trama with a central strand of floccose-interwoven hyphae yellowish in KOH, thin-walled, smooth and hyphal cells greatly inflated; subhymenium a gelatinous layer of narrow interwoven hyphae hyaline to faintly yellowish revived in KOH. Pileus cutis a gelatinous pellicle of narrow (2-5 µ) encrusted hyphae, in age the collapsing hyphae transversely crinkled or creased; hypodermial region of tawny floccose hyphae 4-12 µ (or more) in diam., the incrustations as annular zones, plates etc., and ochraceous tawny in KOH. Context hyphae thin-walled mostly smooth, walls hyaline to yellowish in KOH, cells greatly inflated at times. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: More or less caespitose, around the base of trees, or on rotten wood (logs etc.) New York. Type studied; one collection on conifer duff known from Idaho.

Observations: This species, based on our study of the type, has distinctly thick-walled pleurocystidia, pale ochraceous tawny to ochraceous spores as revived in KOH, distinctly incrusted pellicular hyphae, hypodermial hyphae distinctly incrusted and floccose (not gelatinous), and a pileus with appressed squamules. P. fulvodisca has the spores rusty cinnamon in KOH, pleurocystidia thin-walled or walls up to about 0.5 µ thick, and particles of refractive debris (as rods or granules) in the neck near the apex of the pleurocystidium. Smith 70261 is from conifer duff. French Creek Grade, Salmon River, Idaho, Sept. 6, 1964. It has the flexuous thick-walled (1-2 µ thick) pleurocystidia of the type. This is evidence to extend the range of the species westward and associate it clearly with a coniferous substratum.