The North American Species of Pholiota

180. Pholiota subcarbonaria (Murr.) comb. nov.

Gymnopilus subcarbonarius Murrill, Mycologia 4: 256. 1912.
Flammula subcarbonaria Murrill, Mycologia 4: 262. 1912.

Illustrations: Text figs. 399-401.

Pileus gregarious, 3-4 cm broad, convex to expanded, rarely umbonate, red to bay, yellow on the margin, sometimes darker at the center, rather thin, surface smooth, glabrous, very viscid.

Lamellae adnate or sinuate, pale yellow to ochraceous or fulvous, not crowded, rather narrow, inserted.

Stipe 3-4 cm long, 4-8 mm thick, white, somewhat enlarged below, scaly, hollow. Veil fibrillose, evanescent, not leaving an annulus.

Spores 6-7.5 x 4-4.5 µ smooth; apical pore present but apex not truncate; shape in face view elliptic to ovate, in profile elliptic to very obscurely inequilateral; color in KOH pale cinnamon, in Melzer's reagent paler, cinnamon to ochraceous; wall about 0.25 µ thick.

Basidia 16-22 x 5-6 µ, 4-spored, yellowish to hyaline in KOH and yellowish in Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia 36-58 (65) x 7-15 µ fusoid-ventricose with obtuse apex, smooth, thin-walled, content in the neck in most amber-brown to raw-sienna and appearing wrinkled to striate or near apex with needle-like crystals, some hyaline and homogeneous. Cheilocystidia 17-26 x 4-9 µ, clavate to fusoid-ventricose, hyaline, thin walled, content homogeneous and hyaline. Caulocystidia (none found but very little material available for examination).

Gill trama with a floccose hyaline central strand of hyphae with elongated cells 5-8 µ in diam. (inflating finally to larger) with smooth hyaline walls; subhymenium a gelatinous layer of narrow hyaline hyphae subparallel to interwoven. Pileus cutis a thick gelatinous pellicle of interwoven narrow (1.5-4 µ) ochraceous to hyaline smooth hyphae; hypodermial region rusty-fulvous from incrusted floccose hyphae of various diameters (to 15 µ ± at times). Context hyphae yellowish to hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, interwoven and cells more or less inflated. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On soil, California, January. Type studied.

Observations: The description of microscopic features in the above description are taken from the type collection. This species has a brightly colored pileus even in the dried condition but is somewhat similar to P. highlandensis in stature aside from the thicker stipe and the features placing it in Subgenus Flammuloides. It differs further from P. highlandensis in not growing on burned ground, in brighter colored lamellae when young and scaly stipe (as described by Murrill).