The North American Species of Pholiota

183. Pholiota spinulifera (Murr.) comb. nov.

Gymnopilus spinulifer Murrill, Mycologia 4: 254. 1912.
Flammula spinulifer Murrill, Mycologia 4: 262. 1912.

Illustrations: Text figs. 408-411.

Pileus 3.5-8 cm broad, convex, umbonate, at length expanding and losing the umbo, light yellow with bay center, surface smooth, glabrous, viscid, margin entire. Context cremeous; taste and odor not distinctive.

Lamellae adnate or very slightly sinuate, yellowish to ferruginous, plane, medium broad, subdistant.

Stipe 5-9 cm long, 7-11 mm thick, equal, hollow, subglabrous, with conspicuous mycelium at the base, yellowish-white or tinged with bay. Veil arachnoid, whitish, leaving a small ring of fibrils near the apex of the stipe.

Spores 6-7.5 (8) x 4-4.5 µ, smooth, no apical pore visible, shape in face view elliptic, in profile elliptic or nearly so; color in KOH ochraceous singly, in Melzer's reagent ochraceous; wall about 0.25 µ diam.

Basidia 20-25 x 5-6 µ, 4-spored, clavate, hymenium in sections yellowish in KOH and Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia 45-75 x 9-16 µ fusoid-ventricose, apex obtuse, wall thin to slightly thickened (rarely), smooth, yellowish to hyaline in KOH, content yellowish to hyaline (a plug of yellow material in the neck) and rods and particles of refractive debris often also present. Cheilocystidia 41-50 x 7-15 µ, fusoid-ventricose, fusoid, or clavate to subelliptic-pedicellate, some with brown content (mostly like pleurocystidia but smaller). Caulocystidia versiform 36-60 x 9-20 µ, clavate, vesiculose, fusoid-ventricose and variously intermediate, thin-walled, smooth to incrusted somewhat, thin-walled, content mostly homogeneous but some with refractive debris.

Gill trama with a central floccose strand merely ochraceous in KOH; subhymenium gelatinous, well differentiated. Pileus with a thick gelatinous pellicle of narrow hyaline to ochraceous hyphae; hypodermial zone rusty brown in KOH. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Scattered to clustered on soil under redwoods, California, January. Type (McMurphy 10) studied.

Observations: The distinguishing features of this species are the ochraceous spores revived in KOH or Melzer's reagent, their lack of a germ pore, and the bright colors. P. subcarbonaria is very close but its spores have a distinct germ pore, and no caulocystidia were found. P. fibrillosipes is equally close in spore features but its veil is yellow with some fibrils "Mars-orange." Its pileus is more evenly ferruginous than in P. spinulifera. The tendency of the cystidial walls to swell slightly in KOH may cause one to look in section Flammuloides first.

We regard the species epithet as an adjective.