The North American Species of Pholiota

2. Pholiota punicea sp. nov.

Illustrations: Text fig. 37.

Pileus 1-1.5 cm latus, convexus, glaber, obscure sangineus. Lamellae adnatae confertae latae, obscure sanguineae. Stipes 1.5-2 cm longus, 2-3 mm crassus, sursum albozonatus. Sporae 7.5 x 4.5-5 µ (9-10 x 5-6 µ). Pleurocystidia desunt. Cheilocystidia 32-50 x 4-16 µ, breve clavata vel ovata. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich. conservatum est; legit prope Takilma, Ore. 6 Nov. 1937, Smith 8507.

Pileus 1-1.5 cm broad, hemispheric-convex, glabrous, more or less expanding, blood red, margin subplicate. Context reddish brown.

Lamellae adnate or adnexed, moderately close, broad, red.

Stipe 1.5-2 cm long, 2-3 mm thick, 5 mm when compressed, minutely fibrillose, with a white fibrillose zone, striated longitudinally, some slightly enlarged below.

Spores 7.5-8.5 x 4.5-5 µ (9-10 x 5-6 µ), wall thin but double, no apical pore visible, elliptic to ovate in face view, in profile somewhat bean-shaped to elliptic, rusty cinnamon in KOH, dingy ochraceous in Melzer's reagent (paler), in optical section a small apiculus showing.

Basidia 26-30 x 5-9 µ, (2-) and 4-spored, narrowly clavate to subcylindric, the hymenium pale dull cinnamon as revived in KOH, many basidia with hyaline refractive content of amorphous material variously disposed, in Melzer's reagent yellowish. Pleurocystidia present only as scattered pseudocystidia in the hymenium, 20-33 x 3-5 µ crooked, content dark cinnamon in KOH. Cheilocystidia 32-50 x 4-16 µ, versiform, short-clavate to ovate, 15-30 x 7-10 µ, with the wall very slightly thickened and pale cinnamon in KOH, ventricose at base (6-8 µ) with a long narrow flexuous neck and subacute apex, hyaline and thin-walled, utriform to dumb-bell-shaped with the enlarged apex as broad as the ventricose portion and rarely with a secondary septum in the constriction, hyaline in KOH and collapsing readily. Caulocystidia clavate to irregularly ventricose, 40-80 x 5-11 µ, walls thickened (at times irregularly) and hyaline to yellowish in KOH.

Gill trama of parallel to somewhat interwoven, non-gelatinous hyphae with dull cinnamon to ochraceous often asperulate walls (as revived in KOH), cells inflating to 12-15 µ in the central portion and rather short; subhymenium of small somewhat thick-walled cells rusty brown in KOH, not gelatinous. Pileus cutis of appressed non-gelatinous hyphae 4-10 µdiam. the walls dull rusty cinnamon in KOH and often roughened with incrusting material. Context hyphae very pale cinnamon in KOH, walls slightly incrusted to smooth, cells inflated to 15 µ more or less, interwoven. Clamp connections present, all hyphae inamyloid to weakly dextrinoid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On a burned stump, at the California-Oregon state line, Nov. 6, 1937, Smith 8507, type.

Observations: This is a third species in the stirps Confragosa if the section were to be divided into stirpes. The blood red glabrous pileus distinguishes it at once from P. canescens in the field if one compares basidiocarps which have lost the annulus or annular zone. It differs from P. confragosa in redder colors, growing on charred wood, in the caulocystidia tending to have thick walls, and in lacking a membranous veil.