The North American Species of Pholiota

159. Pholiota graveolens (Pk.) comb. nov.

Flammula graveolens Peck, New York State Mus. Bull. 150: 54. 1911.
Gymnopilus graveolens (Pk.) Murrill, North Amer. Fl. 10: 199. 1917.

Illustrations: Pl. 74.

Pileus often caespitose, 2.5-7 cm broad, obtuse to broadly convex or nearly plane with a low umbo, sometimes slightly depressed at the center, reddish brown or yellowish brown over disc, olive-yellow or paler on the margin, viscid, glabrous, at times very obscurely innately fibrillose, pellicle subseparable. Context pale yellow, in age olivaceous; odor strong at times like that of Cortinarius percomis (earthly), taste none.

Lamellae adnate or slightly decurrent, pale yellow, becoming subferruginous, close or moderately so, medium broad to broad, thin, obscurely white-fimbriate, at times spotted rusty where bruised.

Stipe (3) 5-8 (9) cm long, (4) 5-10 mm thick, pale yellow within and without, becoming dark brown at the base, silky-fibrillose, equal or tapering at the base, solid or with a very narrow cavity. Veil pale yellow, floccose or webby, visible in young basidiocarps, evanescent.

Spores (6) 7-9 x (3.5) 4-5 µ, smooth, apical pore minute, shape in face view oblong to elliptic, in profile somewhat bean-shaped to elliptic or oblong; color in KOH rusty cinnamon, pale and more yellowish in Melzer's reagent; wall about 0.25-0.3 µ thick.

Basidia 23-27 x 5.5-7 µ, 4-spored, clavate, yellowish in KOH and Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia 48-70 x 8-15 µ, fusoid-ventricose with obtuse apex, walls thin, typically smooth, content as revived in KOH orange-red to orange-brown in the neck and sometimes the ventricose part, in Melzer's the content paler even to ochraceous, in one collection (considered authentic by Murrill) it surrounded the neck as a congealed orange-brown mass in KOH. Cheilocystidia (30) 40-60 (67) x 8-14 µ, similar to pleurocystidia but smaller and more fusoid, the small ones usually colorless. Caulocystidia none.

Gill trama of a central area of parallel to interwoven floccose hyphae the cells long or short and with thin smooth ochraceous to nearly-hyaline wall; subhymenium a narrow gelatinous band of hyaline gelatinous hyphae curving out toward the hymenium, hyphae 2-3 µ diam. and with thin smooth walls. Pileus cutis a thick gelatinous pellicle of pale ochraceous hyphae 2-5 µ diam. with distinctly gelatinizing walls; hypodermium of floccose incrusted hyphae 4-10 (14) µ diam., orange-rusty to bright ferruginous in KOH (paler in young material). Context hyphae thin-walled, inflated; walls smooth and greenish-yellow in KOH; large orange-rusty oleiferous hyphae present. Clamp connections present, all hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On or near conifers (pine, hemlock), Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Michigan and Colorado. August-December.

Observations: As pointed out by Peck (1911), it is a species well marked by its yellow veil, and yellow flesh of both the stipe and pileus, and its strong odor. Kauffman (1926) considered it a segregate of P. spumosa. He also compared it with P. condensa. The latter shows slightly thickened cystidial walls and is not said to have an odor. The two should be carefully compared, however, on the basis of fresh material. One of the striking features in material revived in KOH is the orange-rusty colored content in the neck of the pleurocystidia in conjunction with the bright orange-rusty colored hypodermium. These features in addition to the larger spores distinguish it at once from the common American form of P. spumosa. However, it apparently is a rare species.

Material Examined: COLORADO: Smith 68787; MASSACHUSETTS: Peck (type); MICHIGAN: Smith 33-762; NORTH CAROLINA: Hesler 19650; TENNESSEE: Hesler 9586.