The North American Species of Pholiota

114. Pholiota filamentosa (Fr.) Herpel, Hedwigia 49: 160. 1910.

Illustrations: Text figs. 498, 500, 501; pls. 56-57.

Pileus 5-16 cm broad, convex with an incurved margin, viscid, lemon yellow to ochre yellow, covered with rusty brown spot-like scales, in age these appearing as rusty stains and with remains of the inner veil as appressed triangular patches of fibrils agglutinated and at the tips feathered out slightly; margin undulating and when young often fringed. Context whitish, around larval tunnels becoming yellow and finally yellow-brown; odor and taste not distinctive; color with FeSO4 olivaceous, with Guaiac—O; KOH on pileus cutis rusty brown.

Lamellae yellow when young, becoming rusty brown at maturity, broad, close, adnexed, edges even and pallid to concolor with faces. Stipe 4-8 cm long, 1-2 cm thick, equal to a flanged base, yellowish within, apex yellowish and silky fibrillose, lower down with distinct tawny appressed fibrillose scales and entire base showing ochraceous tawny or darker in age; annulus subpersistent, heavy, thick and fibrillose in texture, with tawny patches on under side similar to scales on pileus or their outlines not as clear, gelatinous, often broken as cap expands and remains clinging to pileus margin.

Spore deposit dull rusty brown; spores 6-7.5 (8) x 3.8-4.2 µ, smooth, apical pore minute; shape in face view mostly elliptic varying to slightly ovate, in profile mostly elliptic to obscurely bean-shaped; color in KOH dull cinnamon, in Melzer's sol. slightly paler; wall about 0.25 µ thick.

Basidia 26-32 x 5-7.5 µ, clavate, 4-spored, hyaline to yellowish in KOH, content orange-buff in Melzer's sol. Pleurocystidia 25-40 x 6-13 µ narrowly clavate-mucronate to broadly so and with a long pedicel, content like that of chrysocystidia to merely reticulate (in KOH) and hyaline to rusty brown, in Melzer's reagent the content brownish to hyaline. Cheilocystidia 18-32 x 5-11 µ, clavate to ventricose or fusoid-ventricose, some rather irregular in outline, content ochraceous in KOH, walls thin or very slightly thickened near base. Caulocystidia 30-65 x 5-11 µ, rarely 30-40 x 9-13 µ, abundant, narrowly clavate, hyaline to weakly yellowish in KOH, roughened by adhering small plates (readily visible as thickened areas in optical section).

Gill trama of parallel hypha 6-15 µ wide and with long cells having hyaline to yellowish walls in KOH, the walls thin for the most part; subhymenium not gelatinous in young to freshly matured specimens and only slightly so in age, of hyphae 2-3 µ diam. and closely interwoven. Pileus cutis a gelatinous pellicle of hyphae 3-6 µ diam., hyaline to yellowish in KOH, the walls finally disintegrating, hypodermium of inflated non-gelatinous hyphae 10-25 µ diam., hyaline to brownish in KOH, content of some dull orange in Melzer's sol. Clamp connections present.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Caespitose on a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga) log, Newport, Wash. Sept. 23, 1966, coll. Kenneth Harrison. (Smith 73615), description taken from this collection.

Observations: We have used the Friesian name for this species because his fungus is described as growing on conifer wood and has floccose-radiate annulus and concentric scales on the pileus. P. abietis differs in having pallid brownish gills when young, in lacking an annulus, and in having a truly gelatinous subhymenium. P. fallax has yellow marginate gills and glutinous gelatinous scales on the stipe. Both this species and P. aurivella attain exceptionally large size in the Pacific Northwest. To this extent our material does not fit the Friesian concept.