The North American Species of Pholiota

138. Pholiota ferrugineo-lutescens sp. nov.

Illustrations: Text figs. 291-293.

Pileus 3-7 cm latus, convexus, ferrugineus demum fulvus, ad marginem luteus, glutinosus. Lamellae adnatae, albidae demum lignobrunneae, confertae, angustae. Stipes 6-8 cm longus, 10-15 mm crassus, fibrillosus, fibrillis luteis, deorsum fulvus. Sporae 5.5-7 x 4-4.5 µ. Pleurocystidia 50-75 x 9-16 µ, fusoide ventricosa. Cheilocystidia 30-50 x 8-14 µ, ad apicem rotundata. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich. conservatum est; legit prope Orick, Calif. 4 Dec. 1937, Smith 9393.

Pileus 3-7 cm broad, obtuse to convex, the margin incurved, expanding to plane or with a slight broad umbo, at first between "hazel" and "ochraceous-tawny" (somewhat ferruginous), disc remaining yellowish tawny, but the margin finally pale yellow, glutinous-viscid, with radial fibrillose streaks beneath the gluten, glabrous except for veil-remnants adhering along the margin. Context thick, cartilaginous-pliant, whitish to watery yellowish; odor and taste mild.

Lamellae slightly adnexed, whitish at first, soon dull brown ("wood-brown"), close to crowded, narrow, equal, thin, edges even.

Stipe 6-8 cm long, 10-15 mm thick, equal, stuffed, becoming tubular, surface fibrillose over lower portion from the pale yellowish veil remnants, with an apical fibrillose zone from the ample fibrillose to submembranous veil, white to whitish over all, soon stained yellow where handled and cortex yellow when cut, in age sordid rusty brown below (inside and out); base with dense, radiating, white hairs.

Spores 5.5-7 x 4-4.5 µ, pale tawny in KOH, about the same color in Melzer's reagent, smooth, in face view elliptic to slightly ovate, in profile elliptic to very obscurely inequilateral, pore apical but minute, wall somewhat thickened.

Basidia 4-spored, 26-34 x 6-8 µ, hyaline in KOH and slightly yellowish in Melzer's sol. clavate. Pleurocystidia abundant, 50-75 x 9-16 µ, fusoid-ventricose, apex rounded to obtuse, stalk slender and often curved, surface smooth or rarely with some debris adhering around apex, wall thin to thickened (in the ventricose part 0.4-1.5 µ thick and yellow refractive in KOH), content homogeneous or in some ochraceous-colloidal or merely not reviving well and both ochraceous and reticulate. Cheilocystidia 30-50 x 8-14 µ utriform to subfusoid, thin-walled, smooth except for crystals and debris around apex in some, content yellowish to hyaline, (in either KOH or Melzer's sol.). Caulocystidia none.

Gill trama a floccose central area of parallel to subparallel hyaline to yellowish hyphae (in KOH) with short to elongated thin-walled colorless to smooth walls, the cells short or elongated; subhymenium of interwoven hyphae, gelatinous in KOH. Pileus epicutis a gelatinous layer of appressed-interwoven ochraceous-incrusted hyphae 3-5 µ diam.; hypodermium of floccose hyphae 4-10 µ diam. with heavy, orange-rusty incrustations producing a highly pigmented region. Context hyphae ochraceous-pallid in KOH, hyphae 5-14 µ diam., cells inflated, walls mostly smooth and thin to slightly thickened (swelling slightly in KOH), inamyloid. Clamp connections present.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On debris around redwood logs, Orick, Calif. Dec. 14, 1937, Smith 9393, type. IDAHO: On conifer wood, Smith 54021.

Observations: The walls of the pleurocystidia vary from thin to over 1 µ thick, so the species is placed in this section. It's outstanding field characters are the ferruginous color at first, white gills becoming wood brown, and the stipe readily staining yellow. It is very close to P. velaglutinosa but that species has a greenish yellow context, and greenish yellow stipe apex in addition to the gelatinous outer veil.