The North American Species of Pholiota

64. Pholiota duroides Peck, New York State Mus. Bull. 122: 148. 1908.

Flammula duroides (Peck) Singer, Mycologia 35: 162. 1943.

Illustrations: Text figs. 81-82.

Pileus 2.5-5 (9) cm broad, convex becoming nearly plane, creamy-white to ochraceous-buff, chamois, or cinnamon-buff or nearly ochraceous-orange, glabrous or slightly appressed-squamose or with spot-like scales or depressions in the center, dry, not hygrophanous, margin even. Context white; taste mild.

Lamellae adnexed or sinuate-adnate, sometimes with a decurrent tooth, whitish, becoming brown or rusty-brown, close, narrow (2-5 mm broad), edges white-crenulate.

Stipe 2.5-5 (10) cm long, 4-8 (15) mm thick, whitish, glabrous, equal or nearly so, stuffed or hollow, veil forming a superior white membranous, pendant or rolled, subpersistent annulus.

Spore deposit "bister" (dark yellow-brown); spores 4.5-6 x 3-4 x 4-4.5 µ, smooth, with a minute but distinct apical pore (but apex not truncate); shape in face view ovate to (rarely) elliptic, at times subtriangular (corners rounded), in profile more or less inequilateral to somewhat bean-shaped; in KOH dingy yellow-brown, somewhat more ochraceous in Melzer's reagent; wall thickened to about 0.3 µ.

Basidia 24-28 x 5-6 µ, 2- and 4-spored, clavate, hyaline in KOH, yellowish in Melzer's. Pleurocystidia 23-34 x 6-12 µ, clavate to (rarely) clavate-mucronate or with the mucro subcapitate, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline in KOH, with 1-2 refractive bodies merely yellowish in Melzer's reagent. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, rare to scattered. Caulocystidia present only in the caulohymenium at stipe apex.

Gill trama of subparallel to interwoven floccose, hyaline to yellowish smooth thin-walled hyphae, the cells 3-8 µ diam., but inflating to twice that finally; subhymenium narrower, not sharply delimited from tramal body though in age somewhat cellular, non-gelatinous. Pileus cutis of hyphae smooth to slightly incrusted, hyphae thin-walled, in a loose arrangement and 4-9 µ diam., not gelatinous; hypodermium of rusty ochraceous hyphae with walls distinctly incrusted. Context hyphae interwoven, cells inflating, walls smooth to roughened, narrow, yellowish to hyaline in KOH, all hyphae inamyloid. Clamp connections present.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On soil, especially in open woods, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri, summer. (Reported by Overholts). Material examined by us, the type by Hesler and 9081.

Observations: The description of microscopic characters above is based entirely on our study of the type. The gills are at first whitish, then become grayish, and finally rusty brown. Thus, some collections at least may suggest Stropharia or an annulate Psilocybe. As Overholts (1927) observed, Peck's attempt to relate it to Pholiota dura is confusing; the latter is an Agrocybe. Pholiota albivelata appears quite similar to this species in its Stropharia-like aspect but is readily distinct by the pileus having an epicutis of gelatinous hyphae. Actually P. johnsoniana is the most closely related species but differs in lacking incrusted hyphae in the hypodermial region of the pileus, a more gelatinous pileus cutis and slightly larger spores.