The North American Species of Pholiota

108. Pholiota connata sp. nov.

Illustrations: Text figs. 225-228.

Pileus 4-10 cm latus, late convexus, viscidus, luteus, squamis ad pressis. Contextus subluteus. Lamellae luteae demum subfulvae, confertae, latae, adnatae, secedentes. Stipes 5-9 cm longus, 2-2.5 cm crassus, deorsum attenuatus, connato-caespitosus, deorsum luteus et subviscidus, demum subsquamulosus, sursum subsericeus. Vellum luteum, subcortinatum. Sporae 7-9 x 3.5-4.5 µ. Pleurocystidia 28-43 x 8-14 µ, clavata vel mucronata hyalina vel subbadia. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich. conservatum est; legit Ann Arbor, Mich. 4 June 1966. Bill Isaacs (Smith 72927).

Pileus 4-10 cm broad, broadly convex, in age margin recurved, surface thinly viscid from a pale yellow pellicle (near "warm buff") over this, around disc are appressed fibrillose patches as squamules which darken to dingy brown, slowly the pellicle becoming darker yellow (near "ochre-yellow") and in age checking to produce minute squamules over the marginal area, edge at first appendiculate from veil remnants. Context thick, yellowish, odor and taste mild; FeSO4 slowly olive-gray, KOH brownish (on pellicle orange-fulvous).

Lamellae near ochre-yellow young, dingy yellow-brown in age, broad, close, adnate, seceding, edges even.

Stipe 5-9 cm long, 2-2.5 cm at apex, narrowed to a point below (clusters as in Clitocybe illudens), solid, pale yellowish within, becoming lemon-yellow then rusty-brown in and over basal half, surface below veil line yellow like the pileus cutis but not as viscid and orange-fulvous in KOH, the layer breaking into minute squamules. Veil line soon evanescent, above it the surface pale yellowish and fibrillose pruinose to squamulose with very minute squamules.

Spore deposit cinnamon-brown. Spores 7-9 x 3.5-4.5 µ, smooth, apical pore evident but apex not truncate; shape in face view oblong to elliptic and varying slightly to ovate, in profile oblong to slightly bean-shaped; color near cinnamon-brown in KOH, paler reddish cinnamon in Melzer's reagent; wall about 0.25 µ thick. Basidia 18-23 x 5.5-7 µ, 4-spored (rarely 2-spored), clavate to utriform, hyaline in KOH fresh, yellowish in Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia 28-43 x 8-14 µ, clavate to mucronate; wall thin, hyaline, and smooth; content dark rusty brown in Melzer's reagent (fresh material), in KOH some of them brownish and some hyaline. Cheilocystidia 25-36 x 5-10 µ, clavate, utriform, cylindric-subcapitate, or fusoid-ventricose; walls thin and smooth, hyaline in KOH; content homogeneous. Caulocystidia over apex of stipe in tufts, versiform; clavate, fusoid-ventricose, subcylindric, subfusoid (20) 30-60 x 8-20 µ, walls yellowish in KOH fresh and with tawny incrustations to smooth.

Gill trama of a central strand of floccose subparallel hyphae 4-12 µ diam., hyaline in KOH, and with colloidal-granular content; subhymenium a layer of narrow gelatinous hyphae. Pileus cutis a gelatinous pellicle of narrow ochraceous hyphae (in KOH); hypodermium not sharply differentiated. Context hyphae interwoven, hyaline with colloidal content. Clamp connections present.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Caespitose on Acer negundo Ann Arbor, Mich., June 4, 1966, Mr. Bill Isaacs collector (Smith 72927 type). Also known from Maine, New York and Washington as well as Ontario in Canada.

Observations: This is one of the American species often confused with P. adiposa. Its features of distinction are: the connate fascicle of basidiocarps, the thin viscid layer over the stipe below the veil line, yellow pileus, and spores 7-9 x 3.5-4.5 µ. P. adiposa of Kuhner & Romagnesi has spores under 7 µ long and should be very viscid or glutinous and with much more highly developed scales. The spores of P. connata are too narrow for P. aurivella (7-9 x 5-6 µ). This difference in spore width is significant in Pholiota. P. cerifera is said to have whitish recurved scales at first below the veil line of the stipe. Consequently it seems best to describe the American variant as distinct.

Material Examined: MAINE: Shaffer 3779. MICHIGAN: Baxter 192k; Charlton G-390; Conrad & Langdon 8-11-1893; Harding 436; Imshaug 4786; Kauffman 9-30-07; 10-19-05; Potter 3181: Smith 21382, 32030, 34208, 34227, 50623, 58331, 64753, 64770, 72927 (type). NEW YORK: House 10-27-45; Kauffman 9-2-21; Shaffer 599. WASHINGTON: Smith 17886. CANADA-ONTARIO: Kelly 1235.