The North American Species of Pholiota

52. Pholiota conica sp. nov.

Illustrations: Pl. 18b.

Pileus 1-2.5 (3) cm latus, acute conicus deinde conico-campanulatus, margine fibrillosus, siccus, "ochraceous-tawny" demum "buckthorn-brown," denique "warm-buff." Caro coriacea deinde pallida; odore et gustu mitis. Lamellae adnatae, pallido-brunneae, deinde obscure brunneae, confertae, angustae. Stipes 4-9 cm longus, 3-6 mm crassus, supra coriaceus, infra brunneus, denique passim rubido-brunneus, leviter fibrillosus. Sporae 5.5-7 x 3.5-4 x 4-4.5 µ, ellipsoideae demum ovoideae, leves, truncatae. Pleurocystidia desunt; cheilocystidia (25) 30-50 x 6-9 µ, cylindrica demum ventricosa. Cuticula ex hyphis brunnaceis repentibus composita. Caulocystidia desunt. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich.; lectum prope Priest Lake, Idaho, 7 Juli, 1964, Smith 68254.

Pileus 1-2.5 (3) cm broad, sharply conic young, becoming conic-campanulate, margin fringed with fibrils at first and usually scarcely translucent striate, surface dry or subviscid to touch, ochraceous tawny to "buckthorn-brown" fading to "warm-buff." Context butterscotch-color, becoming pallid; taste mild, odor none. FeSO4 and KOH no reaction.

Lamellae adnate, pallid brownish becoming concolorous with moist cap, crowded, narrow, thin, edges even. Stipe 4-9 cm long, 3-6 mm thick, equal, fragile, darker rusty brown below, butterscotch near apex, finally reddish brown over all, very faintly fibrillose from remains of a thin veil.

Spores 5.5-7 x 3.5-4 x 4-4.5 µ, ovate to elliptic or rarely oblong in face view, in profile subelliptic to obscurely inequilateral, smooth, wall thickened to about 0.3 µ, tawny in KOH and a little more cinnamon in Melzer's reagent, apex slightly truncated from an apical pore.

Basidia 22-27 x 5-7 µ, 4-spored, clavate, hyaline in KOH, yellowish in Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia none. Cheilocystidia (25) 30-50 x 6-9 µ: 1) Subcylindric with obtuse to subcapitate apex and wall of shank flexuous, a few with one or more knoblike protuberances; 2) base somewhat ventricose and with a flexuous neck and obtuse apex; or 3) narrowly clavate, often rather irregular in outline; all types hyaline, thin-walled, with homogeneous content colorless in KOH, and most with a clamp at the septum. Caulocystidia present over apical region as scattered ends of tubular hyphae 3-5 µ diam.

Gill trama of inflated hyphae (9-18 µ) somewhat interwoven with cinnamon smooth, non-gelatinous walls as revived in KOH, hyphae near subhymenium narrower and more highly colored; subhymenium indistinct, not a gelatinous layer. Pileus epicutis a thin gelatinous layer of narrow (2.5-4 µ) hyaline thin-walled tubular hyphae; hypodermial region of hyphae 6-15 µ diam., cell walls thin and merely ochraceous to pallid in KOH, not structurally differentiated from context and at least in young material the hyphae about the same color. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Caespitose on conifer logs, Idaho, July, Smith,68254 (type) from Priest Lake.

Observations: The characters which mark this species include the sharply conic young pileus, the highly colored gill trama as revived in KOH, the cheilocystidia and the relatively small Psilocybe-like spores. P. vernalis is close but differs sharply in the features of the caulocystidia. It also has a more highly developed veil.