The North American Species of Pholiota

4. Pholiota confragosa (Fr.) Karsten, Hattsvampar (Bidr. Finlands Natur och Folk), p. 304. 1879.

Agaricus confragosus Fries, Epicr. Syst. Myc. p. 169. 1838.
Phaeomarasmius confragosus (Fr.) Singer, Lilloa 22: 577. 1951.

Illustrations: Text figs. 35-36; pl. 9a.

Pileus 1-4 (5) cm broad, obtuse to convex expanding to broadly convex or nearly plane, surface moist and hygrophanous beneath a whitish covering of fibrils which become aggregated into minute squamules or remain appressed causing surface to appear canescent, when fresh dark reddish cinnamon to deep vinaceous-cinnamon, fading to pale cinnamon buff or retaining a reddish tone. Context thin, fragile, concolorous with surface, odor and taste not distinctive.

Lamellae bluntly adnate to slightly decurrent, close, moderately broad (about 3 mm), pale rufous to cinnamon becoming dark reddish cinnamon in age, edges pallid and minutely fimbriate.

Stipe 2-6 (8) cm long, 1.5-5 mm thick, equal or enlarged downward, soon becoming hollow, with a superior flaring membranous to sub-membranous annulus, pallid above annulus and silky to pruinose, in age pinkish tan; below the annulus more or less concolorous with pileus or paler and typically paler than pileus in herbarium specimens, with veil remnants variously distributed, base usually with white matted mycelium.

Spores 6.5-9 x 4-5 (6) µ, smooth, dull cinnamon in KOH when mature, dark reddish cinnamon in deposit, broadly obscurely bean-shaped in profile, in face view broadly elliptic to ovate, no apical pore present, in Melzer's reagent paler colored than in KOH.

Basidia 4-spored, 20-26 x 5-8 µ, narrowly clavate, hyaline (to dingy cinnamon at base) in KOH. Pleurocystidia none. Cheilocystidia abundant, 36-60 x 4-8 µ, hyaline in KOH, near base slightly ventricose and some narrowed to a slight pedicel, forward of the ventricose part flexuous cylindric and 4-6 µ thick, the wall here thin to slightly thickened (see old specimens), apex obtuse to subacute. Caulocystidia scattered, similar to cheilocystidia, 40-70 x 4-8 µ, hyaline in KOH, smooth, thin-walled for the most part, often lacking a basal enlargement.

Gill trama of parallel non-gelatinous hyphae with cells 5-10 µ wide and in age considerably more inflated, walls slightly thickened and hyaline or pale cinnamon, toward the narrow cellular subhymenium the hyphae with darker cinnamon walls. Pileus cutis with a sparse trichodermium of hyphae with walls thickened up to 1 µ, asperulate and hyaline or nearly so in KOH, in age or on standing in KOH very pale tan, the cells 8-25 µ diam., and mostly elongate but not rarely subglobose, terminal cells clavate to broadly fusoid; hypodermium not distinct in young pilei but in old ones a layer of hyphae with cinnamon colored walls showing, these smooth to asperulate. Context hyphae thin-walled, interwoven, cells 8-20 µ diam., hyaline to pale cinnamon in KOH. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On rotting logs of hardwoods and conifers, not rare during late summer and fall in the Great Lakes area of North America southward as well as eastward, and on the Pacific Coast.

Observations: This is a most interesting species in view of the failure of the trichodermial elements to become dark cinnamon in KOH.

Material Examined: MAINE: Bigelow 2970, 3859, 3055, 3082, 3241. MICHIGAN: Harding 205. Shaffer 3712, 5416. Smith 9-22-29, 41715, 57619. NORTH CAROLINA: Meyer 14245. NEW YORK: Kauffman 8-23-24, 8-26-14; Smith 690, 875. OHIO: Walters 5-26-46. OREGON: Smith 19768. WASHINGTON: Smith 16700. CANADA—NOVA SCOTIA: Smith 799. ONTARIO: Kelly 994; Smith 4432, 4375. QUEBEC: Smith 61702.