The North American Species of Pholiota

31. Pholiota brunnea sp. nov.

Illustrations: Text figs. 44-46; Pl. 10.

Pileus 1-2.5 (3) cm latus, late convexus, glaber sed ad marginem  fibrillosus, viscidus, sordide vinaceo-brunneus. Lamellae adnatae, brunneolae demum fulvo-cinnamomeae, confertae, latae. Stipes 2-5 cm longus, 3-6 mm crassus, aequalis, deorsum fulvus, fibrillosus; sursum pallide argillaceus, sericeus. Sporae 8-10 x 4-5 µ, ellipsoideae. Pleurocystidia desunt. Cheilocystidia 24-40 x 5-8 µ, clavata vel subfusoideo-ventricosa, tenuitunicata. Caulocystidia 25-40 (60) x 5-8 µ, clavata, obclavato-mucronata vel cylindrica. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich. conservatum est; legit prope Upper Payette Lake, Idaho, 30 Aug. 1962. Smith 66294.

Pileus 1-2.5 (3) cm broad, caespitose, convex becoming broadly convex, margin incurved at first and decorated with a fringe of fibrils, viscid, moist, hygrophanous, "verona brown" (dark dull cinnamon) to "warm sepia," becoming near "buckthorn brown," fading to dingy ochraceous, margin often splitting in age. Context pinkish buff, fading to watery brown; odor and taste not distinctive.

Lamellae adnate, becoming adnexed, when young watery brown, then dull rusty cinnamon (like Galerina autumnalis), close, broad, edges even, pallid.

Stipe 2-5 cm long, 3-6 mm thick, equal, rusty-fulvous below, with the buff remains of the veil variously distributed over main portion, apex pale pinkish buff and fibrillose silky, dingy honey-brown beneath the fibrils.

Spores 8-10 x 4-5 µ, smooth, in face view elliptic to ovate, in profile elliptic to obscurely inequilateral, apical pore minute, wall about 0.3 µ, thick, in KOH dark cinnamon, in Melzer's reagent a paler cinnamon.

Basidia 27-30 x 6-9 µ, 4-spored, clavate, yellowish in KOH to hyaline, yellowish in Melzer's reagent. Pleurocystidia none. Cheilocystidia abundant, 24-40 x 5-8 µ, clavate to subfusoid-flexuous or fusoid-ventricose, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline to yellowish in KOH, content homogeneous. Caulocystidia 25-40 (60) x 5-8 µ, clavate cylindric to cylindric-flexuous, or obclavate-mucronate, smooth, thin-walled, walls yellowish in KOH, content homogeneous.

Gill trama of parallel to interwoven hyphae with short to long cells with thin hyaline to yellowish smooth walls and homogeneous to colloidal content (in fine globules); merging gradually into the cellular nongelatinous subhymenium. Pileus cutis of appressed hyphae 2-5 µ wide, in a subgelatinous layer grading imperceptibly to the context (no hypodermium differentiated structurally), the hyphae at the base of the cutis darker in color (in KOH) than remainder, the hyphae smooth to asperulate. Context hyphae 8-15 µ diam. cells inflated, walls thin smooth and yellowish in KOH, content "colloidal." All hyphae inamyloid.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Cespitose on conifer wood, Squaw Meadows, Valley County, Idaho. Aug. 30, 1962. Smith 66294, type.

Observations: This species appears at first to belong in the P. malicola group but differs in the brown rather than yellow pileus and non-dextrinoid spores. The basidiocarps show a strong superficial resemblance to those of Galerina autumnalis but spores and cystidial features separate them sharply. It is not related closely to P. mutans though one might get this impression from comparing descriptions. The caulocystidia vary from simple projecting hyphal tips to cells resembling the cheilocystidia.