The North American Species of Pholiota
1. Pholiota anomala Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 202. 1895.
Illustrations: Text figs. 483, 486.
Pileus 1.5-2.5 cm broad, at first hemispheric or subconic, then convex, hygrophanous, broccoli-brown when moist, pale yellow or cream colored when dry, warm buff in dried plants, glabrous.
Lamellae adnate or decurrent, pale, becoming brownish ferruginous, in dried plants ochraceous-orange to cinnamon, medium close or slightly distant, rather narrow (3-4 mm).
Stipe 3-6 cm long, 2-6 mm thick, whitish or brownish, fibrillose or glabrous, hollow with irregular transverse partitions, or filled with a cottony tomentum, equal. Veil forming a slight, finally evanescent annulus.
Spores 7-10 x 4-5.5 µ, smooth, apical pore small but distinct; shape in face view elliptic to somewhat oval, in profile mostly somewhat inequilateral varying to bean-shaped; color in KOH distinctly yellow singly (individual spores), with a tawny tinge as seen in groups; in Melzer's reagent merely yellowish; wall about 0.25 µ thick, spores not readily collapsing.
Basidia 26-30 x 5-7 µ, 2- and 4-spored, clavate, hyaline in KOH, yellowish in Melzer's reagent; sterigmata seen up to 15 µ long with typical basidiospores attached, these sterigmata filamentous and 1.5-2 µ diam. Pleurocystidia 27-35 x 4-8 µ, clavate-rostrate to fusoid, at the same level in the hymenium as the basidia (many of them could have been 1-spored basidia), hyaline, smooth, thin-walled. Cheilocystidia 33-52 x 4-8 µ, narrowly clavate with flexuous pedicels, the apex in some subcapitate, in others spathulate (as if starting to branch), some with a lateral bulge, some ventricose at base; hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, content homogeneous. Caulocystidia 30-70 x 5-9 µ, more or less resembling the cheilocystidia but more variable in shape.
Gill trama of parallel non-gelatinous hyphae 5-10 µ broad, walls thin and smooth; subhymenium of the same type of hyphae but narrower. Pileus cuticle of more or less appressed narrow (2-4 µ) hyaline nongelatinous hyphae; hypodermial region lacking special differentiation. Context hyphae interwoven, cells inflated to 15 µ, walls thin, smooth and yellowish. All hyphae inamyloid. Clamp connections present.
Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: On sticks and leaves, California, January. Type studied.
Observations: Apparently it is known only from the type collection. There is a collection by William Herbst, from Pennsylvania, labeled Pholiota anomala, but it is not a Pholiota. Its spores are globose and slightly roughened and 4-5 µ diam. Our description is based entirely on the type. P. anomala can be recognized by the inconspicuous rostrate pleurocystidia, the evanescent annulus, and a peculiar cavernous internal structure of the stipe. It is not to be confused with Flammula anomala Peck (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 202. 1895) which has globose echinulate spores and which Kauffman (1926) transferred to Paxillus. Murrill (1917) placed it under Gymnopilus.