The North American Species of Pholiota
PHOLIOTA (Fr.) Kummer
Der Führer in die Pilzkunde, p. 22. 1871.
Agaricus trib. Pholiota Fries, Syst. Mycol. 1: 240. 1821.
Agaricus trib. Flammula Fries, Syst. Mycol. 1: 250. 1821.
Hypodendrum Paulet, Traité Champ., pl. 137. 1825.
Flammula (Fr.) Kummer, Der Führer in die Pilzkunde, p. 22. 1871.
Pholiota (Fr.) Quélet, Champ. Jura et Vosges, p. 124. 1872-73.
Flammopsis Fayod, Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. VII, 9: 356. 1889.
Dryophila Quélet, Enchir. Fung. p. 66. 1886.
Visculus Earle, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 5: 437. 1909.
Kuehneromyces Singer & Smith, Mycologia 38: 504. 1946.
Pachylepyrium Singer, Sydowia 11: 321. 1957.
Pileus diameter variable from species to species (1-20 cm), pileus convex to conic, more rarely hemispheric, then plane, at times umbonate, more rarely depressed; dry, moist, viscid or slimy; of various colors; scaly, fibrillose, or glabrous; context thick or thin, often more or less concolorous with the surface; odor and taste mild or not distinctive, or more rarely distinctive; lamellae variously attached but rarely decurrent, brownish at maturity, paler at first and then white, pallid, yellowish, or brownish; narrow to broad; close to distant; stipe often darker colored at the base, scaly, fibrillose, or nearly glabrous, dry or (very rarely) viscid, solid or hollow, central; inner veil arachnoid and fugacious, more rarely membranous and forming a persistent, superior to median annulus, sometimes appendiculate; outer veil virtually undeveloped, or in many species leaving remnants as fibrils or conspicuous scales, rarely the scales viscid; spores ellipsoid to ovoid or subovoid in face view, often inequilateral to phaseoliform in profile, wall medium thin to moderately thick and double, smooth, germ-pore present, in some species obscure or not discernible, sometimes broad and the spore-end truncate; basidia clavate, 2- 4-spored; pleurocystidia present in many species, sometimes as chrysocystidia, absent in others; cheilocystidia almost always present and either similar to the pleurocystidia (if present) or different, more rarely as chrysocystidia; gill trama usually subparallel, sometimes more or less interwoven, at times forming a mediostrate and then the subhymenium gelatinous; pileus trama more or less homogeneous, its hyphae disposed radially to interwoven; cuticle filamentous, often of repent hyphae and dry, or again the surface hyphae gelatinizing and forming a gelatinous zone which usually rests on a distinct zone of brownish hyphae—a hypodermium, or hypodermium not differentiated; pileocystidia rare; clamp connections present, and found in nearly all species (rarely not found); caulocystidia at the apex absent, or present and then scattered or in tufts, at times similar to the lamellar cystidia; growing on wood, sawdust, debris, humus, soil, or more rarely in sphagnum beds or on charcoal.
TYPE SPECIES: Pholiota squarrosa.