North American Species of Crepidotus

Subgenus Dochmiopus

In Kavina, Atlas des champ. de l'Europe 4: 12. 1948.

Spores longer than broad (ellipsoid, fusoid, phaseoliform); clamp connections present.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus variabilis (Fr.) Kummer.

Key to Sections

1. Pleurocystidia present
Section Cystiodiosi
1. Pleurocystidia absent
2
2. Pileus surface colored, or with colored fibrils, at least when young (for yellowish species, see next choice)

Section Fulvidi

2. Pileus white to pallid or finally yellowish or ochraceous
3
3. Spores phaseoliform in profile
Section Phaseoli
3. Spores of different shape
4
4. Spores fusoid in face view, inequilateral in side view
Section Fusisporae
4. Not as above
5
5. Spores smooth under oil-immersion lens
Section Betulae
5. Spores ornamented under oil-immersion lens
6
6. Spores typically 6 µ, or less in length
Section Dochmiopus
6. Spores 6.5 µ or more in length

Section Cystidiosi sec. nov.

Pleurocystidia et cheilocystidia adsunt.

Both pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia present.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus albatus.

1. Stipe present, conspicuous
2
1. Stipe absent; or, if present, inconspicuous and soon disappearing
4
2. Pileus orange or orange-brown; lamellae pale orange-yellow
2. Pileus and lamellae of other colors
3
3. Pileus pinkish-buff to grayish-clay, with brown, incrusted erect hyphae
3. Pileus brown, with colorless or pale fuscous, non-incrusted hyphae
4. Pileus white, at least when dry
5
4. Pileus colored
6
5. Spores 6-8 x 4-5.5 µ, punctate
5. Spores 7-9 (10) x 4.5-6 µ smooth           
6. Spores 5-7 µ long, ovoid; pileus "picric yellow" or "antimony yellow"
6. Spores 7-9 (10) µ long
7
7. Pileus "cinnamon buff"; spores drop-shaped or pyriform, punctate
7. Pileus white when dry, grayish to brownish when wet; spores ellipsoid to ovoid, smooth

*See Excluded Species

Section Fulvidi sec. nov.

Pileus coloratus, velfibrillas brunneas gerens.

Pileus colored, or with colored fibrils (for yellowish or ochraceous species, see next choice); clamp connections present.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus kauffmanii sp. nov.

1. Spores 10-14 µ long
2
1. Spores shorter
3
2. Pileus tawny; lamellae very distant; stipe present, eccentric
2. Pileus dark brick-red; lamellae distant; stipe none
3. Pileus glabrous, or appearing so
4
3. Pileus fibrillose
5
4. Spores 4-5.5 x 3-4.5 µ, distinctly warty
4. Spores (5.5) 6.5-8.5 x 4.5-5.5 (6)
5. Pileus reddish-orange, zinc orange, ochraceous-tawny
6
5. Pileus of other colors
7
6. Spores 5-7 x 2.3-3 µ, cylindric-allantoid, pink in deposits
6. Spores 6.5-8 (9) x 4.5-6 (7) µ broadly ellipsoid or subovoid, brown in deposits
7. Spores (5) 5.5-7 (8) µ long
8
7. Spores 7.5-9 (10-11) µ long
10
8. Pileus fawn, tawny-olive, to light buff, with dense avellaneous to light vinaceous cinnamon, incrusted fibrils
8. Pileus otherwise colored, bearing white, non-incrusted fibrils
9
9. Stipe present; spores 5.3-6 x 4-5 µ, smooth
9. Stipe absent; spores 6-8 x 4-5 µ, punctate
10. Spores subreniform; pileus 25-75 mm broad
10. Spores not as above; pileus smaller
11
11. Spores elongated drop-shaped; pileus "cinnamon buff"
11. Spores ellipsoid
12
12. Spores smooth; stipe present
12. Spores punctate; stipe absent

*See Excluded Species

Section Phaseoli sec. nov.

Sporae phaseoliformes vel subphaseoliformes in obliquam.

Spores phaseoliform to sub-phaseoliform in profile.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus phaseoliformis.

1. Only one species known to date.

Section Fusisporae sec. nov.

Sporae fusoideae.

Spores fusoid.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus fusisporus.

1. Epicuticular hyphae straight
2
1. Epicuticular hyphae crooked or coiled
5
2. Spores (7) 8.5-12 µ long; on Abies
2. Spores (6) 7-9 (10) µ long; on hardwood
3
3. Cheilocystidia 29-60 x 3-16 µ
3. Cheilocystidia 19-45 µ long
4
4. Cheilocystidia contorted (crooked, forked, or knobbed)
4. Cheilocystidia not contorted (straight)
5. Cheilocystidia contorted
5. Cheilocystidia not contorted

Section Betulae sec. nov.

Sporae planae.

Spores smooth.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus betulae Murr.

1. Taste very bitter at once
1. Taste mild or not distinctive
2
2. Spores with a germ-pore
3
2. Spores lacking a germ-pore
8
3. Veil present; pileus chrome-yellow
3. Veil lacking
4
4. Cuticle a gelatinous zone
4. Cuticle not gelatinous: gills purplish-violaceous
5
5. Pileus avellaneous to isabelline or pinkish cinnamon
6
5. Pileus white, whitish, or with ochraceous tints
7
6. Spores 7-9 x 5-6 µ
6. Spores 5-6 x 4-5 µ
7. Pileus lightly appressed-fibrillose to subglabrous; cheilocystidia 6-11 µ broad
7. Pileus glabrous or slightly pruinose; cheilocystidia 3-4 µ broad
8. Cuticle a gelatinous zone
9
8. Cuticle non-gelatinous
10
9. Pileus 4-13 cm broad; gills purplish-brown when bruised
9. Pileus (2)10-24 mm broad; gills unchanging when bruised
10. Spores 7-9.5 (10.5) µ long
11
10. Spores 4.5-7 (8) µ long
13
11. Pileus pure white and remaining so when dried
11. Pileus darkening on being dried
12
12. Lamellae crowded; cuticle well-developed; basidia 26-38 x 6-8 µ
12. Lamellae subdistant or distant; cuticle not differentiated; basidia 16-24 x 5-6 µ
13. Stipe present and persisting
13. Stipe absent, or, if present, soon disappearing
14
14. Pileus ochraceous, margin strongly crenate-sulcate
14. Pileus white or whitish, margin not as above
15
15. Spores 6-8.5 x 4.5-5.5 µ
15. Spores 4.5-5.5 (7) x 3.5-4.5 µ
16
16. Pileus glabrous; cheilocystidia 20-35 µ long
17
16. Pileus silky-fibrillose; cheilocystidia 30-83 µ long
17. Pileus attached to a rhizomorphic strand; pileocystidia present
17. Pileus lacking a rhizomorphic strand; pileocystidia none

*See Excluded Species

Section Dochmiopus

Spores 6 (6.5) or less in length.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus variabilis (Fr.) Kummer var. variabilis.

1. Pileus white, pubescent, villose, or fibrillose
2
1. Pileus colored
4
2. Spores 2.5-3.5 (4) µ broad
3
2. Spores 4-5.5 µ broad
3. Cheilocystidia 5-8 µ or more in diameter, clavate, ventricose
3. Cheilocystidia 1.5-3 (5) µ broad, filamentous, often flexuous or branched
4. Pileus pale cinnamon
4. Pileus and gills yellowish
5
5. Pileus lemon yellow; cuticle of 9-12 hyphae deep, bearing a turf of long (up to 1000 µ) hyphae and some pileocystidia
5. Pileus orange-buff or warm-buff, margin tawny or yellow ocher; cuticle of one or two layers, turf of short hyphae

Section Crepidotellae sec. nov.

Pileus albus vel pallide coloratus (cinereus, flavidus vel coriaceus); sporae ellipsoideae demum ovoideae, asperae, plerumque 6.5 vel etiam longiores.

Pileus white, or pale colored (grayish, yellowish, or buff). Spores ellipsoid to ovoid, rough, typically 6.5 or more in length.

TYPE SPECIES: Crepidotus submollis Murr.

1. Pileus at first white, at times becoming colored in age
2
1. Pileus at first colored (yellow, buff, pale clay)
23
2. Epicuticular hyphae of the pileus, or some of them, crooked and coiled
3
2. Epicuticular hyphae, if any, straight
11
3. Spores 5.5-8 µ long
4
3. Spores (7.5) 8-12 µ long
7
4. Cheilocystidia conspicuously contorted, forked or branched
5
4. Cheilocystidia regular in form, or at most, slightly knobbed or flexuous (clavate, cylindric, ventricose)
6
5. Spores ellipsoid, or subovoid, (4) 4.5-5.5 µ broad
5. Spores short, broadly ellipsoid or subglobose, (5.5) 6-7 µ broad
6. Cheilocystidia lageniform, large, 48-64 x 7-13 µ
6. Cheilocystidia cylindric, clavate, ventricose, not lageniform
7. Cheilocystidia contorted
7. Cheilocystidia regular in shape, or somewhat flexuous
8
8. Pileus pure white, unchanging in age or when dried; spores 7-11(12) x 4-4.5 µ
8. Pileus darkening in age or when dried
9
9. Spores 8-12 (12.5) x 6-7 µ
9. Spores 7-9.5 x 4.5-5.5 µ
 10
10. Lamellae becoming pinkish
10. Lamellae yellow-ocher
11. Spores 5.5-7 (8) µ long
12
11. Spores (7.5) 8-13 µ long
15
12. Cheilocystidia conspicuously contorted
13
12. Cheilocystidia regular in shape
14
13. Pileus surface long-woolly
13. Pileus villose, not woolly
14. Spores short, relatively broad-ellipsoid; lamellae white then pinkish
14. Spores short, relatively broad-ellipsoid; lamellae white then pinkish
15. Cuticle a conspicuous gelatinous zone
15. Cuticle not gelatinous
16
16. Cheilocystidia contorted
17
16. Cheilocystidia regular in shape
18
17. Spores 4.5-5.5 µ broad; pileus margin typical sulcate-plicate
17. Spores 5.5-7 (7.5) µ broad; pileus at times bilobed at the base
18. Spores punctate
18. Spores wrinkled-verrucose
19
19. Lamellae at first grayish; pileus pale watery grayish, glabrous
19. Lamellae at first white; pileus not gray
20
20. Lamellae becoming brownish
21
20. Lamellae assuming distinct pink tints
22
21. Cheilocystidia 24-38 x 4-8 µ and clavate, cylindric, ventricose; or napiform, spherical, to broadly clavate, 33-55 x 10-28 µ
21. Cheilocystidia long, slender ventricose with a neck or slender bottle-shaped, 35-70 x 5-8 µ
22. Spores 7-9 (10) x 4-6 (7) µ
22. Spores (7.5) 8-13 x 4.5-5.5 µ
23. Epicuticular hyphae crooked and coiled
24
23. Epicuticular hyphae straight
25
24. Spores 6-8 µ long
24. Spores 7.5-10 µ long
25. Spores 7-9 (10) µ long
25. Spores (5.5) 6-8 µ long
26
26. Cheilocystidia contorted
26. Cheilocystidia regular in form
27
27. Gill-edges and cheilocystidia gelatinous
27. Gill-edges and cheilocystidia not gelatinous
28
28. Pileus margin incurved, fimbriate
28. Pileus margin not fimbriate
29
29. Spores ellipsoid, 6-8 µ long
29. Spores ovoid, 5.5-7 (7.5) µ long
30
30. Cuticle of one or two layers of repent hyphae, bearing a turf of short hyphae; pileus buff
30. Cuticle 9-12 hyphae deep, bearing a turf of very long hyphae; pileus lemon yellow