Champ. Jura Vosg. 1: 128. 1872.
Common Name: poison pie
Cap 4-9 cm broad, convex at first with inrolled margin, becoming plano-convex with a broad umbo, margin sometimes upturned in age; surface smooth, viscid when moist, cream to buff shading to a buff-brown disc; flesh thick, white; odor of radish, taste bitter.
Gills close, adnate to adnexed, white becoming pale brown, finely serrate, edges with droplets of liquid when young.
Stipe 4-7 cm tall, 0.7-14 cm thick, equal to enlarged at the base, pallid to concolorous with cap, apex pruinose, i.e. covered with fine powdery granules; veil absent; solid; rhizomorphs usually seen at base.
Spores 9-12 x 6-7 µm, elliptical, slightly roughened. Spore print dull brown.
Solitary, gregarious or in arcs and rings. Very common under live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and conifers (especially Monterey pine) fruiting from after the fall rains to late winter; sporadic fruitings are sometimes seen during the summer in watered areas.
Toxic. The unknown toxins cause a rather severe gastrointestinal syndrome.
Our Hebeloma crustuliniforme represents a complex of species in California, none of which may be the real H. crustuliniforme of Europe. Our most common form is recognized by moderately large fruitbodies with a cream-colored cap with a darker center, dull brown gills with water droplets on the edges when young, a cylindrical white stipe, and growth primarily with live oaks and pines.
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